Conversion optimization


AIDA: Attention, Interest, Desire and Action

AIDA model is the most widely applied theory in advertising
Marc Andreessen on June 2007

The only thing that matters

The #1 company-killer is lack of market.
The only thing that matters is getting to product/market fit.
Life of any startup can be divided into two parts: before product/market fit (call this “BPMF”) and after product/market fit (“APMF”).
Andreas Klinger on August 2013

Startup Metrics, a love story

Most stuff we learn about web analytics happens after product/market fit

The One Metric That Matters

What’s the most important metric in the business right now? … The one that’s most broken.
Sam Laber on August 2016

Y-Combinator tech stacks

The most common Analytics providers are Google Analytics (451), Google Universal Analytics (314), Mixpanel (183) and Optimizely (129).


Sean Graham on June 2015

First impressions are 94% design related

Look and feel of the website are the primary drivers of first impressions
Seth Godin on January 2007

How to be remarkable

Being noticed is not the same as being remarkable.
Understand the urgency of the situation. Half-measures simply won’t do.
Tony Haile on March 2014

What you think you know about the web is wrong

55% spent fewer than 15 seconds actively on a page.
Google Data on March 2016

Mobile Site Abandonment After Delayed Load Time

53% of visits are abandoned if a mobile site takes longer than 3 seconds to load.
Gitte Lindgaard, Gary Fernandes, Cathy Dudek and J. Brown on March 2006

Attention web designers: You have 50 milliseconds to make a good first impression!

Three studies were conducted to ascertain how quickly people form an opinion about web page visual appeal.
Andrew Careaga on February 2012

Eye-tracking studies: first impressions form quickly on the web

It takes about 2.6 seconds for a user’s eyes to land on that area of a website that most influences their first impression.


Pete Davies on November 2013

Medium’s metric that matters: Total Time Reading

At Medium, we optimize for the time that people spend reading.
Chartbeat documentation

Description of methodology for engaged time

For 95% of participants their active reading time was spent while having interacted with the computer in the past 4.8 seconds
Josh Schwartz on March 2013

Using Engaged Time to Understand Your Audience

Visitors who read an article for three minutes returned twice as often as those who read for one minute.

First-time user experience

Preventing customers from abandoning software after the initial exposure is a goal of good FTUE design.


Cooladata on July 2017

The Definitive Guide to Effective Cohort Analysis

Cohort analysis may be one of the most effective ways to gather information about your customer behavior, but it’s also one of the most underutilized.
Andrew Chen on June 2015

New data shows losing 80% of mobile users is normal

The average app loses 77% of its daily active users within the first 3 days after the install
Andrew Chen on February 2008

How to measure if users love your product using cohorts and revisit rates

Cohorts give the ability to compare performance of the site over time
Jim Novo

Recency predicts future value

You can run all the fancy data-mining scenarios, but recency always comes up as the most important variable in predicting the likelihood of a customer to repeat an action.
Jim Novo

RFM — Customer response, retention and valuation concept

RFM model works everywhere, in virtually every high activity business

RFE – Recency, Frequency, Engagement

RFE is a broader version of the RFD analysis, where Engagement can be defined to include visit duration, pages per visit or other such metrics.


Ash Maurya on June 2017

Traction is the one metric to rule them all

Traction is the rate at which a business model captures monetizable value from its users.
Sean Ellis on January 2018

Does a North Star Metric Oversimplify Growth?

I define a North Star Metric (NSM) as the single best metric for tracking accumulated user value for a product over a time period.
Andrew Chen on October 2013

Zero to traction

Traction is everything, but it’s a reflection of getting product/market fit

Google Analytics

Ed Brocklebank on November 2015

Why Google Analytics time-on-page isn't great for attention analytics

Time on Page and Time on Site metrics, which are the only attention metrics you get
Analytics Edge on November 2017

Misunderstood Metrics: Bounce Rate

Time on a bounce page is always zero
Analytics Edge on January 2017

Misunderstood Metrics: Time on Page / Average Session Duration

Google can’t measure the time a user spent looking at the last page of their visit
Yehoshua Coren on 2011

Real Time On Page in Google Analytics

GA does not provide good insights how users are interacting with content
Jared Spool on April 2015

Is Design Metrically Opposed?

You can interpret bounce rate to support any argument you want
Jakob Nielsen and Kate Moran on November 2015

Page Parking: Millennials’ Multi-Tab Mania

Page parking: opening multiple pages in rapid-fire succession as a way to save the items on those pages and revisit them at a later stage

Event trackers

Ruben Ugarte on May 2016

Event tracking vs page view tracking

Google Analytics are better suited for marketing, while tools like Mixpanel are better suited for products or apps.
Tim Trefren / MixPanel on March 2010

The death of the pageview

Pageviews were valuable metric once, but their time has passed.
Jared Spool on May 2012

Moving Beyond Conversion Rates

I have the perfect advice on how to raise their conversion rate significantly. All they have to do is stop marketing.

Retention Report Overview

First Time Retention retrieves the first instance of the event in the defined time range
Y Combinator on August 4, 2016

How Mixpanel created demand

When we started Mixpanel early on, we made this decision to not track pageviews.
Jordan Carr on October 2017

Product bechmarks report

In the end, visits aren’t enough — what good is a window shopper?
Mixpanel on June 2015

Session length tracking

It is essentially impossible to complete a tracking API call when a user leaves your site
Josh Constine on February 2018

Mixpanel analytics accidentally slurped up passwords

The problem persisted for nine months

A/B testing

Paras Chopra on February 2011

A/B Testing: Only 1 Out of 8 Tests Produce Results

Only 1 out of 8 A/B tests have driven significant change
Jakob Nielsen on August 2005

Putting A/B Testing in Its Place

A/B testing has more problems than benefits.
David Kadavy on February 2015

A/A Testing: How I increased conversions 300% by doing absolutely nothing

Many businesses would be better off if they didn’t run any A/B tests at all.
October 2017

Optimizely Knowledge base

Engagement is the percentage of visitors who clicked any link or submitted any form while viewing a page on which this experiment was running.