Bareserver — A minimal alternative to Express

Bareserver is an extremely simple and fast web server for Node. It's a new way to build RESTful services. It's a minimal alternative to Express, Fastify, and the like.

Note: this is under construction. ETA is in September 2022.

// start on port 8080
const server = require('bareserver')(8080)


// naive routing example
server.get('/ping', function() {
  return 'pong'
})


// something useful
server.post('/users', async function(args) {
  return await app.addUser(args)
})


// image uploads
server.post('/images', async function(img) {
  await fs.promises.writeFile('images', img)
})

NPM dependencies

Lines of code

API size

Runtime performance

Startup time

Why Bareserver?

Bareserver offers a simple, domain-specific syntax for creating RESTful web services.

The primary reason for building Bareserver was to get an API that makes web services feel like local development: you take in arguments and send back return values. There are no request and response objects so you never need to worry about request bodies, argument parsing or return value serialization. You don't need a middleware to get the async calls working.

The small API documentation fits into two pages. You learn to use Bareserver in minutes, and you rarely need to go back for docs when building your thing.

Bareserver starts immediately and the runtime is extremely fast because it's a very thin wrapper above the raw Node HTTP interface.

Bareserver is opinionated — it is optimized for one specific purpose: creating RESTful web services. Express, on the other hand, is unopinionated: it is more flexible, more configurable, and has more features. However, this comes with an expense: Express.js API documentation is 53 sheets of paper when printed.

Bareserver is used extensively on this website. We currently have 91 routes defined on our CRM. We even used it as the frontend to our analytics service for 38 different websites with millions of requests on a single day. It never crashed. A small codebase is easy to stabilize.

Examples

The verbs

All the HTTP verbs, like get, post, put, delete, patch are supported.

server.delete('/account', async function() {
  await this.user.remove()
})

Pattern matching

Get additional arguments from the path itself.

// --> POST: /mailing-lists/backend-devs
server.post('/mailing-lists/%s', async function(list_name) {
  await this.user.addToMailingList(list_name)
})

Contexts

Define contexts for nested routes and shared variables.

// create /account context
const ctx = server.context('/account')

// access control
ctx.all(async function(headers) {

  const userId = await sessions.get(headers.session_id)
  if (!userId) throw { 401: 'invalid_session' }

  // add user variable to the context
  this.user = await app.getUserById(userId)
  if (!this.user) throw { 401: 'invalid_user' }

})

// nested routes
ctx.get(async function() {
  return await this.user.getAccount()
})

ctx.post('/email', function(email) {
  return await this.user.setEmail(email)
})

Global response manipulation

Manipulate the return value globally before sending it back to the client.

server.after(function(path, data) {
  data.user = user
})

File uploads

Multipart requests are automatically detected

ctx.post('/avatar', async function(avatar) {
  return await this.user.addAvatar(avatar)
})

Credits to busboy for doing the heavy lifting, which is the only NPM dependency in the alpha version. It's optional if you don't need file uploads.

Global error handling

Handle user- and system errors in one central place

server.error(async function(error) {

  // skip user errors
  if (error.status) return

  // save for inspection
  await app.pushError(error)

  // continue operating without crashing
  error.status = 500

})

Raw routes

Use request to bypass Bareserver and get raw access to the Node's http.ClientRequest and http.ServerResponse objects. Good for non-REST communication like WebSockets and Server-Sent Events (SSE).

// send live updates with SSE
server.request('/live-updates', function(req, res) {

  if (req.headers.accept == 'text/event-stream') {
    res.writeHead(200, {
      'Access-Control-Allow-Origin': '*',
      'Content-Type': 'text/event-stream',
      'Cache-Control': 'no-cache',
      'Connection': 'keep-alive'
    })
    channels.push(res)
  }
})

Benchmarks

Here's a primitive “hello world” benchmark aiming to evaluate the framework overhead.

server.get('/', async function() {
  return { hello: 'world' }
})

Machine: 1,2 GHz Intel Core m5, 8 GB 1867 MHz LPDDR3

Method: autocannon -c 100 -d 40 -p 10 localhost:3000

Bareserver:   27,448 request per second
Fastify:      22,768 request per second
Express:      13,370 request per second

For each server, we ran the benchmark two times and took the average from the second run. However, those are still ballpark figures since there is quite a bit of variance on the benchmark results. Also worth noting that server benchmarks tend to favor their own solution. For example, Fastify and Foxify beat each other on their benchmarks.

Regardless of the results, Bareserver is definitely one of the top performers because it's such a small layer above the Node HTTP interface.

Frequently Asked Questions

Where is this coming from?

Bareserver is heavily inspired by a 12-year old Ruby project Sinatra. Bareserver brings their powerful DSL idea for Node developers. Big thanks to Sinatra's inventor rtomayko.

Why minimalistic?

We believe minimalism makes better products. Minimalism requires opinionated product design. You must make choices to make a great solution to a specific problem.

Why should I care about the lines of code?

Large codebases are harder to extend and keep in control. They are more complex so it takes a longer time to fix issues. Complexity is also related to performance: the more to execute, the slower it gets.

How is this different from Fastify?

Fastify is another unopinionated framework with 3,516 lines of code, 58 npm dependencies, and 122 plugins. We think Fastify is very similar to Express.

How about Restana, Restify, Koa or Polka?

Same thing. They embrace unopinionated design and are designed for many different use cases.

Why not use arrow functions on the examples?

We think old school function declarations are clearer, especially with the async keyword. Explicit is good. Or maybe we are just old farts.

Where is this project heading?

Towards stability. We strive for great API, handy syntax, zero issues and Long Term Support (LTS). Feature richness is not our goal.

When is this ready?

ETA is September 2022.

Who are you?

Bunch of developers aiming to revamp website analytics. Bareserver is a central piece on the backend.

Comments

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